In this third post about linguistic tools, I'll be discussing software that I use for acoustic analysis. Praat is one of the premier acoustic analysis tools available for computers. While there are probably commercial software products out there that are more powerful and with more bells and whistles, Praat offers some of the best ways to visualize and manipulate sound while being free and cross-platform. While it's not completely intuitive, it is quite easy to explore the sound space of a recording, especially recorded speech, and I ran a workshop on the basics of how to use it, with online materials that you can practice with if you want to learn more. There are also other great tutorials online that you should search for.
One of the best features of Praat is the ability to segment sounds using TextGrids, which are basically text files that identify sections of a sound file using timestamps. The benefit of this is that once you have properly annotated a sound file you can use scripts to automate analyses, which saves a lot of time that would otherwise be spent taking individual measurements. When I first started my PhD I spent a good amount of time learning to write Praat scripts, which turned out to be a continuation of the programming I learned when I was younger (Basic, QBasic) and a worthy introduction to programming languages like Python.
Since this has turned out to be a post that discusses Praat scripting, I'm going to introduce/attach some of the scripts I wrote/use for acoustic analysis, and link to some of the many other places you can find scripts for your particular use case. In my case these scripts are mainly in service of documentation and description of endangered and unwritten languages, but maybe others will find them useful as well.
Automatically measuring sounds:
This script ("dur_f0_f1_f2_f3_intensity.praat") is one that I modified (originally from this script but more recently I based it on this script) to give automatic measurements of segmented sounds in a TextGrid. It is an updated version of the “msr&check…" file that I made available along with the workshop I linked to above. At the time, I had recorded several wordlists in Pnar, and I spent countless hours segmenting the sounds in each word. My thinking was that even if my segmentation wasn't precise, the sheer number of sounds and their tabulation would allow me to run valid quantitative analyses. As it worked out, this was mostly the case, and I was able to target the outliers for closer examination. I also got better at recognizing Pnar sounds from all the time I spent with the words. I have now updated this script to work nicely with the following script, which plots vowels for you in the Praat picture window, which can produce print-publication-friendly images.
Vowel plot for formants:
Another that I wrote/modified from other bits takes a comma-delimited CSV spreadsheet with formant values and plots them (in the standard vowel chart format) as a Praat drawing with an oval marking their standard deviation (“draw_formants_plot_std_dev.praat”). I wrote this primarily to produce a clearer image than the one produced by JPlotFormants for my PhD thesis. Thanks also to the Praat User Group for their help with getting the script right.
I recently modified this script to work nicely with the automatic measurement script above. What this means is that you can segment all your words using TextGrids, run the script above to produce a CSV, and then just run this script to plot characters from that CSV. I implemented a 'Sequential' option for the plot so you can plot one vowel at a time, which means that you can leave all the segmented consonants (and VOT annotations) in the CSV file for later analysis. Or you can remove them, up to you. Just keep in mind that if you do have consonants in the CSV, it WILL try to plot them on the chart unless you choose the Sequential option.
The third script linked here (“tone_analysis.praat”) I recently wrote in order to take continuous measurements of tones without normalization. This is more for exploration of tonal systems on a per-speaker basis, allowing the investigator to identify whether length is potentially a factor in the characteristics of a particular tone. I am planning to modify it to allow for percentage-based analysis (and thus normalization) of tones, which could be used by the investigator to create clearer plots once they identify the characteristics of the individual tones. But I haven’t gotten around to it yet. I'll write another blog post when I do.
As a final note, these scripts are really just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the kind of analysis you can do in Praat. For more on Praat scripting, check out this great tutorial, Will Styler's excellent blog, the scripts he uses/maintains, these resources at UW and these from UCLA. You can also follow along with Bartlomiej Plichta as he leads you through some scripting lessons in his videos, which are very useful.
When you discuss doing language documentation and description, one of the first things to know is that you have to collect language data. The primary source of language data is people who speak the language you're interested in, which then begs the question of how you record the data. There are some great books and papers on doing linguistic fieldwork of a documentary nature (more than what I've linked to here), but this post is focused more on the tools you use to process your data once it is recorded, as a continuation of my 'Linguistic Tools' post. I'll also plan to write a longer post on recording audio/video in the field, but for now I'll assume that you've recorded it already. I'll just briefly say that I like using a digital SLR like the Canon Rebel along with a unidirectional mic, in conjunction with a digital audio recorder like the Zoom H4N (ideally with a lapel mic of some kind).
Once you have your data recorded, the next step is to copy it to your computer for processing. Often the digital recordings will be rather large and cumbersome, and you may want to split them into smaller files, depending on how many stories/interactions you recorded. I find post-processing is important because it means you can focus on the interaction during the recording and then during processing you make notes of all the files, their content, and other metadata that will help later when you're not in the field and can't remember all the details.
In this processing stage you also want to do two very important things:
I use two programs for converting video: Media Converter and MPEG Streamclip. You could use just MPEG Streamclip (which has a Windows version), but on a Mac I find that Media Converter is much simpler/easier for reducing the size of the file, stripping out the audio, or other purposes. MPEG Streamclip is great, though, for combining multiple clips or splitting one clip into several. In each conversion you want to ensure that the video/audio quality is not compromised, depending on what you want to use it for. In my case I am mostly doing acoustic analysis, so I'm more interested in preserving the audio at CD quality (16 bit, 44.1 khz) which is the standard for acoustic analysis and archiving. In any case, since I've backed up the raw files, I can always copy from them if I mess up my working files and need to restore the quality.
To process/convert and work with audio I use Audacity - this is primarily for processing audio, not for acoustic analysis. Audacity supports a large range of encodings and formats, and you can select portions of the sound file to do basic processing like boosting the signal, removing noise, etc. These are generally not the best things to do to an audio signal, but they can be useful. In my case, this is particularly for when I'm playing the audio back and need to hear what someone said in the background during a conversation, or do other kinds of manipulations.
I can't stress enough the importance of backing up data and copying your data files to a new (staging) folder. This really ensures that you can always rewind the clock and reset, while being confident in exploring the data itself in your working folder. This should become an important part of your workflow so that it is second nature. In some cases we will make mistakes, but understanding the importance of backing up and creating metadata for your backups will help to mitigate perhaps catastrophic events. Happy converting!
When I started my PhD program in Linguistics (language documentation and description), I had some experience with linguistic analysis, but not to the degree that I had to learn in order to complete my PhD. I had tuned my ear to be able to hear the sounds of the IPA, and had practice transcribing and learning a range of languages, but I had never analyzed an unwritten language completely by myself. During the course of my PhD I learned much more about how to analyze languages 'from the ground up', so to speak.
Along the way, I discovered that there were some excellent tools that made me much more effective and efficient at the task of documenting and describing an unwritten language. I was fortunate that I already had a good foundation in recording and processing audio from my experiences recording, mixing, and releasing my music, so the fact that the audio data I recorded would form the basis of my analysis didn't phase me. However, there were another whole set of tools that would allow me to investigate the details of the language I planned to work on.
Each of these programs is open source or free, though some are developed for Windows and others are developed for MacOS, which might be a problem for some people. Since I grew up with DOS and Windows but then later switched to a Mac, I'm comfortable with both systems. The Apple/Mac laptop build quality was my first choice for travel and portability combined with power. I say 'was' since some of Apple's recent design choices mean I might be switching back to Windows on my next laptop. But for now I run an old Windows version on my Mac via Virtualbox or bundle Windows software in a Wine port so I can run it as a native app in MacOS.
I'll plan to describe each of these tools in more detail in future posts, but for now here's
A list of the tools I currently use for my linguistic work:
Tools other linguists use, but that I don't use much:
Just a quick blog post to mention that one of the tools I use in language documentation and description, Transcriber, is newly repackaged for use with OS X El Capitan! This is a big deal because previous versions (from 2013) failed to work, then the program was supposedly 'updated' (and didn't work), so I've been using the 2005 Windows version in a virtual box. But I just tested the new release (new as of 4 hours ago) and it works great on my Mac (just have to update the settings to default to UTF-8 for character encoding) and also with my trs2txt converter for Toolbox! Happy transcribing!
Recently I've been thinking about what I wish I knew about PhD study before I began. When you start out to do a PhD, there are many things you have to learn that are not necessarily directly related to your proposed topic. This blog post isn’t intended to highlight all of them, since everyone who pursues a PhD has a slightly different situation: the location, institution, department, course of study, expected thesis format (and page length) are going to drastically affect the individual’s experience. There may be many other blog posts that target your particular context (some are linked below), but here are some practical considerations that I think apply to everyone.
1) Research your (potential) supervisor before starting a PhD.
I was personally very fortunate to find a good supervisor. I didn’t do much research on my primary supervisor beforehand, but things really worked out. His teaching/mentoring style really matched my learning style, and I was able to get enough support from him that I learned a ton and became aware of how much more there was/is to learn. I was also fortunate to find a co-supervisor that I worked well with and learned a lot from, which meant I wasn't stuck when my primary supervisor was unavailable. I also received quite a bit of practical support and can say that both my supervisor and co-supervisor are still important friends and mentors. But I know of other people that received much less support, and in some cases it meant they were unable to finish their PhD. If you’re going to pursue a PhD, make sure that your potential supervisor isn’t someone who is likely to be a cause of difficulty along the way, either causing you to drop out of the program or give you a bad reference later. Of course some things cannot be predicted, and sometimes bad things happen, but do your best to research the person and their track record, or at least their character and interpersonal relationships with (former) students.
2) Learn/develop organizational skills.
By the time I started my PhD I had learned organizational skills for keeping track of bills and projects as an independent musician. But in my first year of PhD study I had to learn how to keep drafts in folders, organize papers, and otherwise have a filing system that helped me find stuff. Even so, I occasionally find duplicate files in random folders on my hard drive. The digital organizational tools you use are only as good as the systems you have in place to help you manage your work. After my PhD I discovered that there was a much better way to organize my files, data, and workflow (more on that in another post), but I would have been even more productive if I had learned these things early on.
3) Get practical advice on finding a job after your PhD, and learn some skills/abilities outside of your main subject area.
Fortunately I had mentors who had their own life experience and had done things in between academic jobs. In some cases they had worked odd jobs after their PhD while applying for everything and anything in their subject area. I learned that the basic post-PhD pattern is: complete PhD, apply for lots of jobs (postdocs, lectureships, professorships), get a few interviews, get a lot of rejections, keep applying, work odd jobs in the meantime, write/submit lots of papers (and receive lots of rejections), finally get a job. It’s a pretty rough deal, but if you’re willing to travel for jobs you have a decent chance. And secondary skills (like how to program or be a barista) can tide you over until you can get back to doing what you REALLY want.
4) Don’t sweat the small stuff.
Doing a PhD is hard. Sometimes you’ll wonder if it’s worth it. For some people it’s probably not. But if you pursue it, realize that there are some things you should get really pissed off about, and there are some things that you’re better off letting go. Having people steal your work is worth getting pissed off about, but most other things aren't. For example:
a) Let go of thinking that you’re better than the next guy. Accept instruction from your mentor(s) who really DO know better/more than you. Even the cleaner in your hall might have specialized knowledge that can help you out.
b) Let go of thinking your thesis must be perfect. Your knowledge will never be perfect, and your thesis is only a snapshot of what you know at the beginning of your journey. Don't let this fact stop you from submitting it to your supervisor - let them be the final arbiters of whether it's acceptable or not.
These are just a few of the things I've learned in pursuing and completing a PhD. If you're interested in learning more, and you're actively thinking about graduate school, you might find this UK blog post helpful, or this Australian one. Some other practical advice, as this post notes, is to publish early and publish often, even during grad school. You should also consider searching more specific criteria related to your area of interest, but hopefully these four suggestions will get you started.
This website is newly updated! I just redesigned the layout and will be making it a bit more writing-oriented over the coming days and weeks. The reason for this is because of a realization that while I still enjoy writing and producing music (and you can still link to all my music-related content via the navigation menu), my focus and life/work trajectory has really shifted.
Another reason I haven’t updated this site more regularly and done more blogging is that at the end of 2015 I thought the AI website builder of the future was right around the corner (thegrid.ai). As you can read from this post, I (and so many other people) were wrong.
I can’t really complain though - I think I got quite a lot from what I spent on the product, including a curiosity about A.I. and an understanding of how far we have to go before computers defeat humans and run our lives. I also got a website that I’m too embarrassed to link here because it basically looks like a really bad Tumblr account... like my old (now essentially defunct) Tumblr.
Anyway, I’ll keep checking my AI website periodically, and maybe I’ll be able to finally move everything from here to that site and my life will achieve some semblance of integration.
This is my first update in a long while, as I notice that this blog hasn’t been updated since 2015. I blame life and the ease of posting short updates on Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook. Since my last post I started a new job, started dating an amazing lady and got married. No raised eyebrows please! It HAS been over a year and a half; things happen.
What this probably means is that updates are not super-likely to come daily or weekly. It’s hard to change habits, particularly when writing on a blog is not on the top of my list (being replaced with research, family, etc..). However, I am working on a few processes to write a bit more frequently, since it’s good practice and I have a lot of thoughts rattling around my brain.
In particular, I enjoy sharing what I know, whether it’s about products I find useful (like the Hanvon that I reviewed in a series of blog posts [Part 1, Part 2, Part 3]) or about processes. The processes I have been developing in the past year are related to data management and workflow, some of which I was taught, some of which I taught myself, and some of which I learned from the internet.
My initial work as a PhD student in linguistics involved Language Documentation and Description, which I hope to continue to do. Now I’m doing more Python programming and data analysis, which I find requires a somewhat different skill set, yet one informs the other. In what I hope will be a series of blog posts, I’ll try to unpack these things, in hopes that they will be useful for other people traveling similar roads.
This is the final installment of my review of the Hanvon e920 (PLUS) - you can read Part 1 (my reasoning behind purchasing it) HERE and Part 2 (how I got it and changed the language mode) HERE. In this post I'll discuss how I set it up, the features I really like, and some of the issues I have had to get used to. I've also embedded a video review here for those who want to watch a live demo. For further usage details, read on below the video.
Set Up - Navigation: After changing the language mode to English, I decided to look through the Home screen options. You can navigate to the 'home' screen at any point by selecting the house icon at the top left of the screen. The e920 has two modes: finger touch and stylus. The finger touch mode is not as responsive as the Kindle Paperwhite (check THIS article for possible reasons why), and I find that using the stylus gives a better response, however both modes work fine (registering over 80% of taps, impressionistically). The default setting is to automatically switch between the two modes, though this can be changed. The stylus is located in the device at the top right (back), and when it is removed the reader enters stylus mode - otherwise it is in touchscreen mode. There are more options while reading in stylus mode, but I'll discuss that a bit later.
Along with touch navigation, there are several buttons on the lower part of the Hanvon, below the screen. These buttons can be used for navigation and are arranged in three parts: left, center, and right. The left button scrolls between pages, including menu pages (left=left, right=right). The right button scrolls between menu options (left=up, right=down). An underline (on menus) or an arrow (on files) identifies the current highlighted item. The center buttons include a 'MENU' key, an 'OK', and a 'back/return'. As you would imagine, the menu key brings up menu options, the OK key selects the highlighted item/option, and the 'back/return' goes up a level to the previous menu/page.
Using the left button I was able to look through the Home screen options. A radial counter at the bottom right showed me which page of the Home screen I was on - so far, there are three pages of 19 total Home menu options. Selecting 'Library' allows you to view folders on your device's internal storage. Selecting the 'SD' icon at the bottom of the screen allows you to view the contents of your Micro SD card. You can also use the web browser and visit the Hanvon bookstore, but since everything was in Chinese (and the browser defaults to the Hanvon site) and because they ask you to set up a Hanvon account, I gave up on that.
I wanted to set up a dictionary since I found it useful to have one on the Kindle. Unfortunately there are not very many options for English dictionaries on the Hanvon, that I'm aware of (perhaps if I set up a Hanvon bookstore account there would be more options). Setting up a dictionary is quite easy, however, and is simply a matter of selecting the 'Dictionary' Home menu option, on the second page of the Home menu. My English language options were the Longman Dictionary and Internet Glossary (which only works if you connect it to the internet via WiFi). Neither seemed to work terribly well while reading, and there is no way to highlight text while using Ebooks, which seems an oversight.
Wifi is relatively easy to set up, either by pushing the power button in the opposite direction, or selecting the WiFi icon in the top right of the screen. Again, buttons and sensitivity leave something to be desired, but with some patience it works. One issue is that there seems to be support only for networks that just require a password. When I tried to connect to my school network (which requires a domain\username and password) a logon authentication window popped up after a minute or two, but the onscreen keyboard did not, meaning there was no way to input the appropriate information. This seems like something that a firmware update could fix. Passwords and wireless networks are automatically saved.
Connecting to a computer is quite simple - either by using the included mini USB cable, or by using a micro SD card. More on the SD card later. When you connect via USB, your computer will recognize the drive as 'Untitled'. I have no idea if there is any way to change this. There are several folders with Chinese names, some of which contain files and some of which do not. One folder contains images, another contains audio files - you can put your images and audio files in these folders, respectively. Images which you put into the folder within the images folder will be used for the lock screen background - for best results, crop any images you wish to use as backgrounds to 1200x1600 and place them in this folder, removing images you do not want to have displayed. The device will choose one of these images at random when you lock the device.
Using an SD card is simply a matter of treating it as you would a USB drive or any other storage device. Keep in mind that for best cross-platform results you should format it as FAT 32. You may also notice that if you copy files to the SD card (and to the internal memory, for that matter) from a Mac, some oddly-named files will be created on the card. These are tiny files which OS X creates for indexing and which are hidden on OSX but are clearly visible to the Hanvon's Win CE environment. To keep this from becoming an issue, I use a program like CleanEject, which deletes these files from the SD card or device just before ejecting it from my Mac.
Reading PDFs is where this device is most useful (to me). With your finger you can select menu options for the text-to-speech mode, darkness, and display area along with a few others. However, with the stylus there are more options, namely annotation (with optional embedding) and highlighting/extracting text into a text file that corresponds to the name of your PDF document. The annotations are particularly useful for highlighting elements of PDFs that don't have selectable text (i.e. scanned documents and/or PDFs created over 10 years ago). The extracted text is great for pulling out quotes for later incorporation into papers.
Reading ebooks is OK. Unfortunately, unlike with my Kindle Paperwhite (and unlike the PDF options just described for the Hanvon e920), there is no way to select text in Ebooks (i.e. highlight for dictionary or store it for later) neither in finger nor pen touch modes. This seems quite an oversight. There is also only a single font available for Ebooks, though the font size can be adjusted. Overall, I found ebook reading to be pleasant, but not as pleasant as the Paperwhite, which I will probably keep around for just that purpose.
All in all, I am very happy with my purchase of the Hanvon e920. It does everything I want for PDFs. The main issues that make the experience less than fully enjoyable are the slower response (and inconsistent registering) of the touch screen both in finger and pen modes, and the lack of dictionary support or fonts. However, after a week of acclimation, I have gotten used to the response time and am enjoying it much more. The audio player, expandable SD card slot, and other features are simply pluses to an already enjoyable and useful device. I'm sure I'll discover more about it as I continue to use it.
As a final note, the Hanvon e920 uses Windows CE Core 5 as its operating system. However, I have not been able to figure out how to add fonts to the system (despite posts like THIS), which I think would give a better reading experience. Perhaps there is a hack which would allow such a thing, but there may also be some licensing restrictions.
This is Part 2 of my review of the Hanvon e920 e-reader (mine is the PLUS version, which I think is the second generation), Part 1 of which is HERE. When we left off I was describing my reasoning for purchasing the device, namely specs that were better than either the Kindle DX or the Icarus eXcel, and a lower price point. After purchasing the device for less than USD $300 (on AliExpress), all I had to do was wait for the delivery, which in Singapore took two weeks or so from China (since I chose the free shipping option). I checked the tracking number daily, but Singapore Post is notorious for not updating tracking (possibly it was on a ship from HK), and finally it went from 'shipped from Hong Kong' to 'delivered' (it's such a small country, after all).
The package was well-wrapped and the device arrived unharmed. Here's a picture of the box that it came in. All that was in the box was the reader, some documentation in Chinese, and a software CD (also in Chinese). Yup, no English-language support.
Turning the device on was straightforward using the power button on the lower left. For an unboxing video (of the first generation of the device), look HERE. The power button is a bit finicky, but I discovered that there is a small blue LED indicator on the front of the device which lights up when the reader's processor is active. When the processor is active (LED on) the use of buttons doesn't register, which is perhaps why the power button seems finicky. Sometimes when the device is off, the power button also requires a few tries before it registers (you know it has registered when you see the blue light).
When the device turns on it defaults to a welcome/home screen. Everything is in Chinese. At this point I was like "Uh oh, how do I figure out how to change the language to English?" Fortunately I have a bunch of Chinese-speaking friends (I live in Singapore after all) so I wasn't too worried about asking for help if I needed it, but I took another look at the device first. There are five icons at the top left of the screen: a house, a note, a play button, a gear, and a refresh sign. I tapped the gear icon (remember, this is a touch screen) and it brought me to what I assumed was the settings page. All the options were still in Chinese, but I simply selected the first option, and a little window popped up with a few selection possibilities: Chinese characters and the word 'English' (in English). Selecting the 'English' possibility transformed all the options into English, and... voila! English language mode entered - level up! *cue Atari video game music*
So far I have had the device for a week, and it works really well, though it takes some getting used to. In Part 3 of this review (which includes an embedded video review) I'll discuss how I set up the device, what my favorite features are so far, and what the challenges have been with getting used to the Hanvon e920 (plus).
The last year has been quite busy - I completed my PhD, got hired on a 1-year contract as a postdoctoral Research Fellow, and have since returned to India and done many other things. Needless to say, I haven't been updating my blog very regularly.
This post is intended to remedy the situation somewhat, in the form of a review of a device I recently purchased as a Christmas gift for myself - the Hanvon e920. There are no comprehensive English-language reviews of this device, which is a shame, since it is quite a useful e-reader, particularly for those academics like myself who read a lot of PDFs. Because of the lack of reviews I actually agonized for a bit over whether to purchase it, but when I thought about it for awhile and compared it with its only real competition (the Kindle DX and Icarus Excel), I finally bit the bullet.
The Kindle DX, Icarus eXcel, and Hanvon e920 are pretty much the only 9.7 inch e-readers on the market. There are larger e-readers, such as Sony's 13.3 inch reader, but currently there are drawbacks to such solutions: Sony's, for example, only handles PDFs and retails for around USD $1000 (currently on sale for $800). I've owned a Kindle Paperwhite since 2013 after my friend Eric got one and showed me how it handled PDFs. The main reason I got one was because I was on my way to North-East India to spend 5 months doing fieldwork and I wanted an easy way to read linguistic articles and textbooks while trying to learn the Pnar language - the Paperwhite can handle a large library, is extremely portable, and allowed me to bring along ebooks to read for pleasure when I got really stressed out by cross-cultural living. The backlit display and the 2-3 week battery life were also quite handy in a place where electricity was not always easy to come by.
While I found the Kindle Paperwhite useful, there were some drawbacks when it came to reading PDFs. The main issue was how small the fonts were. This could be dealt with to some extent by changing the orientation to landscape mode, but then navigating PDFs could be troublesome, as I would often have to re-find my place on the page when moving to the next section (further down the page). Whitespace was also not always handled well by the Paperwhite. Sometimes I could manually crop the pages on my computer, save the PDF, and then copy the files to the Paperwhite. But the majority of articles still had fonts that were much too small for easy reading. Fortunately I have pretty good eyesight, but it gets tiring after awhile.
Thus began my search for a large-screen e-reader that handles PDFs. Originally I planned to get a Kindle DX - a professor friend of mine had one and it looked like it was exactly what I wanted. Similar storage space as my Paperwhite, larger screen... but the drawback was that it had no touchscreen. One of the benefits of my Paperwhite was being able to highlight text and take notes, but the DX doesn't have that.
Then I found the Icarus eXcel. Same size as the Kindle DX, but with a touchscreen and multi-configurable (check out THIS video review). The Icarus eXcel also lets you set your page frame (viewable area), annotate PDFs, take notes, and has a ton of other functionality. But the price is a bit off-putting, and some people on forums said that it is simply a re-branded Onyx Boox M92.
After searching through a few other forums, I discovered the Chinese company Hanvon. Apparently they make e-readers for a few other brands, but their own brand of e-readers is sold to Chinese consumers. At first I wasn't sure if I could use their e920, as it seemed there was no English support. But the specs were quite staggering - 9.7 inch screen with 1600x1200 resolution (!!), PDF support and great zoom options, support for a variety of other formats, expandable storage, touch screen and stylus with the ability to take notes and annotate PDFs, an MP3 player and more. Honestly, it seemed almost too good to be true. And then I discovered that you could only buy them in China.
Fortunately, after quite a bit of searching and Google Translate, I found that some Chinese vendors were selling them online via TaoBao and AliExpress, with free shipping to Singapore. The English versions of their pages were a bit confusing, but being a Linguist I figured I could understand them well enough and decided that they weren't scams. And I managed to find one on sale for under USD $300. So, like I said, I bit the bullet and bought it.
This post is getting a bit long, so I'll continue it later in Part 2 (now HERE), which will also include a link to a live video review of the e920. For now, you can compare the specs of the Kindle DX and Hanvon e920 by clicking on THIS link.
I'm a linguist and singer-songwriter. I write about life, travel, language and technology.